Facts & Figures
The present city of Hisar, one of the important cities of North India, is located at 2905’5″north latitude and 75045’55” east longitudes. It is situated one hundred sixty four kilometers west to Delhi on the National Highway number nine.
Location and Situation
Hisar city is one of the important and fast growing urban centers of Haryana. It has grown to a vital position on the urban map of Haryana. It has come up because of location factors. Its location is such that for any development away from the G.T. Road Hisar draws the attention.
The city is catering to the needs of not only the population of the district but also to the population of adjoining areas of Rajasthan and Punjab. People from Punjab and Rajasthan come here for medical treatment, for the purchase of good quality seeds, cows, buffaloes, bullocks and sheep etc. and also to get good education.
Very hot summers and very cold winters. The maximum day temperature during the summer varies between 40 to 46 degree Celsius. During winter its ranges between 1.5 degree to 4 degree Celsius. The winds are strong and frequent during May to July. Normally the South Westerly current of summer monsoon brings the rains during July to September period. Intermittent dust storms are also common.
The climate of Hisar owes to its continental location on the outer margins of the south-west (SW) monsoon region. It has tropical monsoonal climate and is characterized as arid type of climate. The district has characteristically four seasons during the year viz., Summer (March to May), SW Monsoon (June to September), Post-Monsoon (October to November) and Winter (December to February) season. SW monsoon also known as summer monsoon brings rain during last week of June to mid-September. The period from October onward until next June remains almost dry except, few light showers received due to westerly depressions/western disturbances (WDs). The summers are generally quite hot and winters are fairly cool. The main characteristics of climate of in the district are its dryness, extremes of temperature and scanty rainfall. Rainfall: Around 75 to 80 per cent of the annual rainfall is received during SW Monsoon season (June to September) with 50 per cent coefficient of variation (CV). The average annual rainfall is around 450 mm, of which the average monthly rainfall received during July and August months is 133.4 and 116.2 mm, respectively. The average monthly rainfall during September is 54.5 mm and June 49.8 mm. The average rainfall received during monsoon season is around 354 mm. The annual highest rainfall of 793.6 mm was recorded in 1976 and the lowest of 145.2 mm in 2000. About 10 to 15 per cent of the total annual rainfall is during the winter season which is caused due to WDs. The average number of rainy days (day with rainfall = 2.5 mm is called a rainy day) per annum are 27±5 days out of which 19 falls during SW Monsoon period. The highest number of rainy days occurs during the months of July and August and lowest during November and December. Temperature: Air temperatures during summer are quite high at Hisar, the maximum value of which touched 48.3°C in May, 1944. However, with the onset of summer monsoon, the temperature ameliorates and falls in the vicinity of 35.0°C. The lowest temperature recorded at Hisar is -3.9°C which occurred in January, 1929. The sub-zero temperatures (frost conditions) are not uncommon during winter season. The maximum temperature in summer months between 40 to 44°C and the minimum temperature between 4 to 6°C in winter months are normal for the place. The annual average maximum and minimum temperature at Hisar is 31.5 and 16.2°C, respectively. Humidity: The April and May constitutes the driest period in the year since the lowest relative humidity is recorded during this period. The relative humidity increases with the onset of monsoon during the first week of July and which again falls with the withdrawl of monsoon after mid-September onward. During winter months, relative humidity remains significantly high. Relative humidity varies from 5 to 100 per cent during the year at Hisar Sunshine: October to April are generally sunny months receiving more than 70 per cent of the total possible sunshine hours. February to May and September to December months receive an average of more than 8 hours per day of bright sunshine. Whereas, January ,July, August and December recorded little less sunshine viz., 6 to 7 hours per day because of cloudiness due to rain bearing weather systems. Winds: Monthly mean wind speed values are varying between 4 and 10 kms per hour. The North-Westerly cold winds prevail in the months of December, January and February. The prominent prevailing wind directions are Westerly, North-Westerly, South-Westerly and South-Easterly. A hot and dry South-westerly wind (Loo) also prevails in May and June months. Evaporation: Evaporation during the summer months remains above 12 mm/day. However, during rainy and winter seasons, average value of evaporation remains around 6.8 and 4.0 mm/day, respectively. The maximum rate of evaporation was also recorded 25.6 mm/day under Hisar conditions. Dew: The highest amount of dewfall is observed in December and January, whereas, lowest in April and November months. Occurrence of dew takes place during September to April. The total seasonal amount of dewfall is around 25.0 mm. Special weather phenomenon: Occasionally dust-storms are experienced during summer months and hail-storms during February to April. Fog prevails generally in December and January months. Thunder-storms also occur during post monsoon season and summer months.
The city of Hisar was founded by a Muslim ruler, Firozshah Tughlaq in 1354 A.D. ‘Hisar’ is an Arabic word which means ‘Fort’. The city, which we know today as ‘Hisar’, was originally called ‘Hisar Firoza (also Hisar-e-Firoza) or in other words the ‘Fort of Firoz’. But as the days rolled by, the very word ‘Firoza’ was dropped from its original name.
It was in these lands that the very first evidence of the presence of man was discovered with the excavation of Agroha, Banawali and Kunal. All of these were the pre-Harappan settlements, bringing for us the very first images of pre-Historic times. The presence of the pillar in Hisar fort belonging to the time of Emperor Ashoka (234 A.D.) originally from Agroha, the discovery of coins of the Kushan Kings tells tales of ancient India.
The construction work of the Hisar city was started in the year 1354 A.D. under the personal supervision of Firozshah himself who stayed here for a sufficient time. The boundary wall of Hisar Firoza was built up of stones brought from the hills of Narsai. The Fort city was also surrounded by big ditch dug round the wall. A large and deep tank was constructed inside the fort, and the water used to replenish the ditch. Inside the fort a fine palace, having a complex of different buildings was built. Well laid out gardens added to the beauty of the palace. The initial stage of the city, it was reported, was completed after the incessant work of two and a half years.
The nobles and Amirs were also directed by the Sultan to get the residences built here. The buildings were constructed with lime and burnt bricks. The fort-city had four gates which were subsequently named as the Delhi Gate and Mori Gate to the east, the Nagori Gate to the south and Talaqi Gate to the west.
While constructing the palace, popularly known as ‘Gujari Mahal’ for his beloved, Firozshah also built a new city around it. The Gujari Mahal still stands in its austere majesty. This palace is a complex of different buildings, including the royal residence of the sultan Firozshah, Shahi Darwaza, Diwan-e-Aam, Baradari with three tehkhanas, a Hamam, a Mosque and a Pillar. The style of architecture of the Gujari Mahal is dignified. The palace has beautifully carved stone pillars.
It is true that most of the materials used for the constructing the Gujari Mahal complex was of Hindu or Jain temples, but there is nothing unusual about it because the conquerors would often do like that. It is thus a routine practice of history.
In 1408 Hisar felt into the hands of the rebels, but was recovered by the royal army under the Emperor Mahmud Tughlaq in person. In 1411 the tract of Hansi came into the hands of Khizar Khan, and he ascended to the throne of Delhi in 1414 as the first Sultan of Sayyad Dynasty. In 1420 the fief of Hisar was conferred on Mahmud Hassan as reward for good services. During the feeble dynasty of the Lodhis (1451-1526) Hisar rather Haryana continued to form a parts of Haryana, was granted as a fief to Muhabbat Khan in the reign of Bahlol Lodi (1451-89)
When Babur invaded India in the 1524-26, Hisar was an important strategic center of Ibrahim Lodi’s empire. Before the battle of Panipat in 1526, on reaching the Ghaggar, Babur learnt that the troops from Hisar, led by Hamid Khan, were advancing towards him. He then dispatched prince Humayun with a sufficient number of army who succeeded in defeating the enemy. Babur handed over the city of Hisar to Humayun as a reward for his success in his first military expedition. Humayun ruled over India twice first from 1530 to 1540 and again from 1555 to 1556. During his first reign a mosque known as Jama Masjid was built here by Amir Muhammad in 1535.
During Akbar’s reign (1556-1605) Hisar became once more a place of considerable importance. It was made the headquarters of the revenue Division known as sirkar. As some of Mughal Princes who were attached with Hisar, subsequently became the Emperors. The city of Hisar then known in the history of India as the Duke of Wellington of Mughal Era.
The last noteworthy actor in the history of the tract of Hisar before the advent of the British power was George Thomas (1756-1802). He was an independent ruler of the tract of Haryana, including Hisar, from 1797m to 1802. The Jahaz Pul and the Jahaz Kothi situated to the east of the city of Hisar, still remind the great Irish adventurer. Thomas used the Jahaz Kothi, which was once a Jain temple and afterwards converted into a mosque, as a residence.
It gained importance in early sixties when Agriculture University was setup as an extension of the Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana. Ever since, the Government ‘s positive policies have played a vital role in the economic development of the city. The industrial policy of the Government has attracted large number of entrepreneurs and has resulted into the industrialization in and around the city.