Facts & Figures
Panipat is a historic city in Haryana, India. It is 90 km north of Delhi and 169 km south of Chandigarh on National Highway. The three battles fought near the city in 1526, 1556 and 1761 were all turning points in Indian history. The city is famous in India by the name of “City of Weavers” and “Textile City”. It is also known as the “cast-off capital” due to being “the global centre for recycling textiles”. Panipat district was carved out from the erstwhile Karnal district on 1 November 1989. On 24 July 1991 it was again merged with Karnal district. On 1 January 1992, it again became a separate district. Further, it is said that, before the battle of Mahabharat, Panipat was one of the five villages demanded by Pandavas from Duryodhana. Panipat has many amazing tourist spots. The eminent old structure in Panipat is a holy place of the Muslim saint Shaikh Sharafuddeen Bu Ali Qalandar. Some other tourist attractions of the city are the battle grounds where three renowned battles of Panipat fought. Divisions The district is divided into two sub-divisions: Panipat and Samalkha, which are further divided into five tehsils: Panipat, Samalkha, Israna, Bapoli and Madlauda. There are four Vidhan Sabha constituencies in this district: Panipat Rural, Panipat City, Israna and Samalkha. All of these are part of Karnal Lok Sabha constituency. Demographics According to the 2011 census, Panipat district has a population of 1,205,437. The district has a population density of 951 inhabitants per square kilometer. Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 24.60%. Panipat has a sex ratio of 864 females for every 1000 males and a literacy rate of 75.94%. Industries Panipat is called the city of weavers, as it produces textiles and carpets. It is the biggest center for quality blankets and carpets in India and has a hand loom weaving industry. Panipat city is the biggest centre of “shoddy yarn” in the World. Blankets prepared through hand looms and power looms are sent to soldiers. The Samalkha subdivision of this district is famous for foundry of agriculture instruments. The first unit of the thermal power station at Panipat was commissioned on 1 November 1979. Presently it has 8 units and the installation capacity of 1360 MW. Panipat handloom industries are famous across all over the world. It is famous for curtains, bed sheets, blankets and carpets.
According to the legend, Panipat was one of the five cities (prasthas) founded by the Pandava brothers during the times of the Mahabharata; its historic name being Panduprastha. Panipat was the scene of three pivotal battles in Indian history.The First Battle of Panipat was fought on 21 April 1526 between Ibrahim Lodhi, Sultan of Delhi, and the Timurid warlord Zaheeruddin Babur. Babur’s force defeated Ibrahim’s much larger force of over one lakh (one hundred thousand) soldiers.This First battle of Panipat thus ended the ‘Lodi Rule’ established by Bahlul Lodhi in India.
The Second Battle of Panipat was fought on 5 November 1556 between the forces of Akbar and Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, a King of North India, who belonged to Rewari in Haryana and had captured the large states of Agra and Delhi defeating Akbar’s forces. This king, also known as Vikramaditya had won 22 battles against the Afghan rebels from 1553–1556 from Punjab to Bengal, and had his coronation at Purana Quila in Delhi on 7 October 1556 and had established ‘Hindu Raj’ in North India, before the 2nd battle of Panipat.Hem Chandra had a large army, and initially his forces were winning, but suddenly Hemu was struck by an arrow in the eye and he lost his senses. On not seeing him in his howdah on the back of an elephant, his army fled. He was later captured and beheaded by the Mughals. His head was sent to Kabul to be hanged outside Delhi Darwaza and torso was hanged outside Purana Quila in Delhi. This Second battle of Panipat thus ended the ‘Hindu Raj’ established by Hemu in north India, albeit for a short period.
The Third Battle of Panipat was fought in 1761 between the Afghan invader Ahmad Shah Abdali and the Marathas under Sadashivrao Bhau Peshwa of Pune. Ahmad Shah won but with a very heavy casualty rate on both sides. It resulted in the worst defeat of Marathas in their history. The war led to a power vacuum which later led to the British conquest of India. The famous Urdu shayar Maulana Hali was born in Panipat.